The causes of cervicogenic headache are varied and typically depend on the problem in the structure of the neck. Various causes are described below:

  • Degenerative changes: The most common cause of cervicogenic headache is degenerative change (arthritis) in the neck (cervical spine). These are natural aging changes that cause bony spur formation, pressure on the nerves, and laxity/hardening of the ligaments.
  • Kyhposis (reversal of cervical curvature): The neck normally has a gentle C-shaped curve (lordosis) that allows the neck to curve slightly backwards. This normal position keeps the head in balance and reduces neck strain. As our discs dry out, they lose some of their height , resulting in straightening of the neck neck.  In some cases, the neck angles forward instead of backward. This causes greater strain on the muscles at the back of the neck, and results in occipital headache.
  • Whiplash: This is an injury that occurs from the head being “whipped” back/forth quickly. The mechanism of injury is from the head moving in a flexion/extension motion. The most common type of Whiplash injury is due to motor vehicle crash or contact sports injury (such as football or soccer). Headaches following whiplash are very common and have been reported in 80% of persons at 2 months following whiplash injury. Even 2 years after a whiplash injury, 20-25% of persons will still have headaches
  • Nerve compression: A common cause of nerve compression is degenerative disc disease, or arthritis in the neck. As the spine ages, and the discs lose their height, the small joints on the sides become more narrow. The nerves then have less room to travel through the joint, resulting in pressure on specific nerves. Another cause can be from a herniated disc in the neck that causes pressure on a specific nerve. Less commonly, nerve compression may be due to other causes such as tumors or abnormal fluid cavities in the spinal cord.

Tune in next week  to read about the risk factors for causing CERVICOGENIC HEADACHE.